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Ea Sports Cricket 07 Player Editor.19

Conventionally, leather has been used to manufacture the outer layer of cricket pads. However, leather-based pads are heavy; in recent years the development of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) and PU (polyurethane) has made it possible to manufacture lightweight pads. PVC is a synthetic polymeric material used as a replacement for leather, as it is cheaper, more durable, and lighter than leather. PVC has high chemical resistance, which makes it difficult to recycle. Because of this, PVC has lost importance in recent years [11,12]. PU is now more widely adopted, as it is more readily recyclable, and is as cheap and durable as PVC. PU can be converted into a high-density foam to be used as a lightweight shock absorber to make lightweight pads. The outer facing of a cricket pad is made up of Polyurethane (PU)/Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), while different materials are used as padding according to their inherent properties of impact resistance and shock absorption [13]. Traditionally, cane (light wood) in stiff form is used in pads to provide rigidity and protection inside cricket pads. In modern equipment, cane has been replaced by High-Density Foam (HDF), and is now largely found in cheaper and better quality pads. The major benefit of high-density foam is that it is extremely lightweight, as it is largely made up of air. However, such synthetic materials are derived from non-renewable natural resources, e.g., oil, which contributes to global warming and has limited end-of-life disposal routes [11,12]. Research on potential sustainable innovation opportunities is needed. Cricket pads with greater impact protection while focusing on the comfort and safety of players simultaneously are becoming necessary. Natural fibers such as flax, jute, sisal, silk, and coir are inexpensive, with relatively lower density and higher toughness. These fibers are lightweight, renewable, and biodegradable. Studies show that flax fibers have high specific strength and modulus along with low density, which makes it remarkably effective for use in composite materials [13]. For high-end application, aramid fibers, e.g., Kevlar, are preferred due to their high strength, light weight, and shock absorption properties, which make them suitable for use in cricket pads [14].

Ea Sports Cricket 07 Player Editor.19

In elite rugby league players, the prevalence of general anxiety disorder was 14.6% preseason and 10.1% in-season.[17] Individual sports athletes may be at greater risk for anxiety than team sports athletes.[18] Possible reasons for this may be that young athletes often join a team for fun, whereas athletes may join an individual sport for goal-oriented reasons such as scholarships and weight control.[14] Individual sports athletes are also more likely to[16]:

Results: Over the past 10 seasons, average match injury incidence, for match time-loss injuries, was 155 injuries/1,000 days of play, with the highest daily rates in 50-over cricket, followed by 20-over cricket and First-Class matches. Annual injury incidence was 64 injuries/100 players per season, and average annual injury prevalence was 12.5% (although fast bowlers averaged 20.6%, much higher than other positions). The most common injury was the hamstring strain (seasonal incidence 8.7 injuries/100 players per season). The most prevalent injury was lumbar stress fractures (1.9% of players unavailable at all times owing to these injuries, which represents 15% of all missed playing time).

Discussion: The hamstring strain has emerged from being one of the many common injuries in elite cricket a decade ago to being clearly the most common injury in the sport at the elite level. This is presumably in association with increased T20 cricket. Lumbar stress fractures in fast bowlers are still the most prevalent injury in the sport of cricket at the elite level, although these injuries are more associated with high workloads arising from the longer forms of the game. Domestic and international matches have very similar match injury incidence rates across the formats, but injury prevalence is higher in international players as they play for most of the year without a substantial off-season.

The first major series of published studies on cricket injuries were made in the late 1980s and early 1990s, with the earliest attempts at recording larger series of injuries (1-4) and exploring risk factors for lumbar injuries in fast bowlers. (5-11) In this era (1980s-1990s), lumbar injuries in fast bowlers were clearly the major injury concern for the sport. Cricket researchers published the first-ever consensus international injury definitions for a sport in 2005, copublished in four major sports medicine journals. (12-15) Since the publication of the initial consensus definitions, a short form of cricket called T20 (Twenty20 or 20 over) has risen to become one of the most common forms of match play. The initial 2005 definitions contained many definitions that were not highly applicable for T20 cricket. (16) A new round of consensus definitions has recently been undertaken with updated definitions published in 2016 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. (17) Recommended changes to some of the definitions now require additional injury surveillance publications using the new units and definitions.

Just as drawing was a fundamental part of Bellows' earlylife, so too were sports of great importance to him. As a boy, he developedan interest in baseball that, though it initially was a way to gain socialstanding with his peers, soon became one of his great passions. Bellowsexcelled at the game throughout high school and was elected captain of histeam. He turned down an offer to join an "A" class professionalteam from the Indianapolis Western League at the end of high school. Bellowscontinued with baseball at Ohio State University, becoming a star playerin the years he was enrolled there, 1901 to 1904, and he was scouted bysemi-professional and professional teams such as the Cincinnati Reds nearthe at the end of his university education. Even after quitting the Universityand leaving for New York to become an artist, Bellows was still very involvedin baseball, playing semi-pro ball with the Howards of Brooklyn, both forthe love of the game and for the extra income it provided the penuriousartist-in-training.

Bellows saw Tilden play at the annual tournament at Newport,Rhode Island in 1918 and again in 1919, and he also saw Bill Johnston, anotherprominent player of the era who had been considered the top American competitoruntil Tilden began to displace him. Johnston's nickname was "LittleBill," to distinguish him from Tilden. Bellows created a number oftennis-based works from his experience at Newport, including four oil paintings,two lithographs, and numerous drawings. One of his sketches includes imagesof a male player, who looks like Johnston, in mid-serve. The sketch alsoincludes a study of a lanky male player, leaning over in readiness for play,possibly an image of Tilden, who, like Bellows, was quite tall. Bellowsgreatly admired Tilden, and a comparison between Bellows as a baseball playerand Tilden as a tennis player was made by Fred Cornell, Bellows' friend,sports teammate, and New York roommate, which noted that both men had "colorful"personalities and that both were "great and graceful player[s]."Emma Bellows recalled the summers in Newport as among the happiest and mostprolific in Bellows' life. She stated that Bellows was not aiming for portraiturein his finished Newport tennis works, being more interested in the settingand the spirit of the national tournament. But she also specified that Tildenand Johnston were the outstanding players there.

The Bellows drawing communicates an atmosphere of mutualrespect. Officials are not necessary, because players have been trainedto follow the highest standards of sportsmanship. Opponents applaud eachother's good shots, and the matches end with handshakes, consoling wordsto the loser, and compliments for the winner.

Sportsmanship is another theme that continues to be associatedwith tennis today. Except for the Jimmy Connors and John McEnroe era ofthe 1970s and 1980s, when poor behavior was taken to an unprecedented level,good sportsmanship has always been a trademark of tennis. The tennis stadiumat the U.S. Open was named for Arthur Ashe, picked by Sports Illustratedas the greatest sportsman of the twentieth century. The top two male playersin the world today -- Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal -- never challengeofficials' line calls and never show temper on the court. They are humblein victory and gracious in defeat.

And while most sports require officials, most tennis competitionat the USTA league, college, and high school levels have none. Tennis has"The Code," which requires participants to call the lines on theirside of the net. The ball is good if there is any doubt. In other words,each player bends over backwards in favor of the opponent. No one questionsthe line calls of an opponent. To do so would destroy the integrity of thegame. This is in striking contrast to certain sports in which participantsare taught to "push the envelope" and to avoid umpire detection.

The spirit of fun and play that is captured in Bellows'drawing continues to dominate the Gustavus tennis environment. Each summerfor the past 32 years, the campus has been filled with hundreds of recreationaltennis players attending Tennis and Life Camps. The Camps emphasize the"Three Crowns" of tennis -- positive attitude, full effort, andgood sportsmanship. By focusing on the things over which players have control,rather than how well they play or whether they win or lose, the participantsdevelop a game plan that will keep tennis fun for the rest of their lives.

Imagery can be defined as an experience that mimics or simulates a real life experience. Imager differs from dreaming in that it only truly happens while an individual is conscious (Munroe, Hall and Fishburne., 2008). Callow, Hardy, and Hall (2001) examined the effects of imagery on the confidence of elite adult badminton players. Results showed that a 20 week imagery intervention improved levels of sport confidence in most players and stabilised sport confidence in others. Mills, Munroe, and Hall (2001) also examined imagery use and self-efficacy in adult athletes competing in individual sports and found that athletes who displayed high levels of self-efficacy in competition situations, tended to use more imagery than counterparts with lower levels of self-efficacy. Other studies investigating the effects of imagery on self-confidence in sport have often involved elite senior and junior athletes but Munroe and colleagues (2008) found that imagery was a significant predictor of self-confidence and specific forms of self-confidence such as self-efficacy, in children aged 11 to 14 years competing at both recreational and competitive levels of soccer. Hanton and colleagues (2004) also supported the use of imagery to develop and maintain sport confidence mainly because it is capable of influencing an individual athlete's cognitions, thoughts and beliefs.


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