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Franck Roger - Bone Of My Bone VERIFIED

Arch Bug tries to kill Rachel, but Ian fights him. Arch almost takes Ian's arm off with an ax, then William shoots and kills Arch. Ian's arm is fine, only muscles and bone have been injured but not the nerves. Ian and Rachel are in love. Jamie arrives suddenly at Lord John's house, very much alive, with redcoats hot on his tail. After a brief reunion with Claire, he pretends to take Lord John hostage and flees, but not before William sees him and realizes that Jamie is his biological father because of the unmistakable family resemblance. William flies into a rage and storms out of the house.

Franck Roger - Bone Of My Bone


Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton and are responsible for its sexual dimorphism. Estrogen deficiency at menopause or loss of both estrogens and androgens in elderly men contribute to the development of osteoporosis, one of the most common and impactful metabolic diseases of old age. In the last 20 years, basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies have changed considerably the landscape of our understanding of bone biology as well as the relationship between sex steroids and the physiology and pathophysiology of bone metabolism. Together with the appreciation of the side effects of estrogen-related therapies on breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, these advances have also drastically altered the treatment of osteoporosis. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of estrogens and androgens on bone, their influences on skeletal homeostasis during growth and adulthood, the pathogenetic mechanisms of the adverse effects of their deficiency on the female and male skeleton, as well as the role of natural and synthetic estrogenic or androgenic compounds in the pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis. We highlight latest advances on the crosstalk between hormonal and mechanical signals, the relevance of the antioxidant properties of estrogens and androgens, the difference of their cellular targets in different bone envelopes, the role of estrogen deficiency in male osteoporosis, and the contribution of estrogen or androgen deficiency to the monomorphic effects of aging on skeletal involution.

For over four decades, Dr. Riggs built the Mayo Clinic into a world-renowned center for bone and osteoporosis research and care. He is considered by many endocrinologists to be the preeminent world authority in the clinical investigation, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis.

Dr. Riggs and his colleagues developed the first instruments used to measure bone density in osteoporosis and conducted the first clinical studies to evaluate the efficacy of most of the major osteoporosis treatments used today. He has published more than 500 papers, served on many scientific study panels and served as president of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the National Osteoporosis Foundation. In May, the foundation presented him with its highest honor, the Legends of Osteoporosis Award.

About Red Bone Alley Foods, LLCEstablished in 1993 with the opening of the Redbone Alley Restaurant & Bar in Florence, S.C., Red Bone Alley Foods is dedicated to offering its customers the freshest food possible. For more information on Red Bone Alley Foods, LLC, please visit

Dr. Orwoll specializes in the evaluation and care of patients with osteoporosis, other forms of metabolic bone disorders, and abnormalities of calcium metabolism. He is professor of medicine and attending physician in the bone and mineral section of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, and has been the director of the Bone and Mineral Clinic, and of the Bone Density Lab.

He is an internationally recognized expert in the area of bone biology and metabolic bone disease, and has considerable experience in basic, clinical, and epidemiological investigation. Major areas of research interest include the epidemiology, etiology and therapy of osteoporosis in men, the evaluation of new diagnostics and therapeutics, osteogenesis imperfecta, effects of sex steroids on skeletal biology, and skeletal genetics/proteomics.

Background Choline kinase has three isoforms encoded by the genes Chka and Chkb. Inactivation of Chka in mice results in embryonic lethality, whereas Chkb-/- mice display neonatal forelimb bone deformations. Methods To understand the mechanisms underlying the bone deformations, we compared the biology and biochemistry of bone formation from embryonic to young adult wild-type (WT) and Chkb-/- mice. Results The deformations are specific to the radius and ulna during the late embryonic stage. The radius and ulna of Chkb-/- mice display expanded hypertrophic zones, unorganized proliferative columns in their growth plates, and delayed formation of primary ossification centers. The differentiation of chondrocytes of Chkb-/- mice was impaired, as was chondrocyte proliferation and expression of matrix metalloproteinases 9 and 13. In chondrocytes from Chkb-/- mice, phosphatidylcholine was slightly lower than in WT mice whereas the amount of phosphocholine was decreased by approximately 75%. In addition, the radius and ulna from Chkb-/- mice contained fewer osteoclasts along the cartilage/bone interface. Conclusions Chkb has a critical role in the normal embryogenic formation of the radius and ulna in mice. General Significance Our data indicate that choline kinase beta plays an important role in endochondral bone formation by modulating growth plate physiology. 2014 Elsevier B.V. 041b061a72


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